A/C- An abbreviation for air conditioner or air conditioning.
100BaseT - A synonym for the Fast Ethernet network standard. The "100" refers to a maximum data-transfer rate of 100 megabits per second over twisted pair, copper wire.
10BaseT - A synonym for the Fast Ethernet network standard. The "10" refers to a maximum data-transfer rate of 10 megabits per second over twisted pair, copper wire.
10K - A grade level Box or Cover rating. See "Incidental Light Traffic".
1A - 1 Normally Open
1B - 1 Normally Closed
20A - A California ruling that has the investor owned utilities performing the under-grounding of electrical cables. The funds to perform the work are derived from rates and go into a sinking fund that is used at the discretion of the municipality the electric line is in.
20B - A California ruling that has the investor owned utilities performing the under-grounding of electric cables. The funds to perform this work are derived from a combination of rates and the developer of the land the line is on. This work is done at the discretion of the municipality the electric line is in.
20C - A California ruling that has the investor owned utilities performing the under-grounding of overhead electrical cables. The funds to perform this work are derived from the developer of the land the line is on.
20K - A grade level Box or Cover rating. See "Occasional Traffic".
2S1W - Two Speed, 1 Winding (motor).
2S2W - Two Speed, 2 Winding (motor).
3 Phase - See "Three Phase" and "Polyphase"
600 Volt - Electrical systems, cables or service designed to be operated under 1000 Volts.
600V-UD - 600 Volt Underground Distribution Cable.
1. A set of IEEE standards for data transmission over wireless LANs. The specifications include 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g. All of the specifications include Ethernet protocol.
2. A specification for a wireless LAN that operates in the 2.4GHz range and provides a data transmission rate of 1Mbps or 2Mbps using spread spectrum technology.
802.11a - A specification for a wireless LAN that operates in the 5GHz frequency range and provides a data transmission rate of 54Mbps using spread spectrum technology.
802.11b - A specification for a wireless LAN that operates in the 2.4GHz range and provides a data transmission rate of 11Mbps using spread spectrum technology. This specification was known as Wi-Fi but the term now applies to 802a and 802g as well.
802.11g - A specification for a wireless LAN that operates in the 2.4GHz frequency range and provides a data transmission rate, over short distances, of 54Mbps using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology.
802.1x - A security standard for wired and wireless LANs.
A - 1) Amperes; Amps. 2) Area. For cables Area is expressed in Circular Mils.
A-H - Ampere-Hour
A/D Conversion - The process of converting an analogue signal into an equivalent digital one utilizing an A/D converter.
AA - 1) The Aluminum Association. 2) Refers to All Aluminum as in All Aluminum Conductor.
AAAC - All Aluminum Alloy Conductor
AAC - All Aluminum Conductor.
AAC/TW - All Aluminum Conductor, Trapezoidal-Shaped Aluminum Strands.
AASHTO - American Association of Safety Highway Traffic Officials
AC - Alternating Current.
ACAR - All Aluminum Conductor, Aluminum Alloy Reinforced.
ACB - Air Circuit Breaker
Access Point - A wireless networked device usually connected to a wireless LAN used to access the wired LAN.
Accuracy - The degree of uncertainity for which a measured value agrees the ideal value.
Accuracy Class - A number used to indicate the accuracy range of a measurement transducer, according to the defined standard.
ACSR - Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced.
ACSR/AW - Aluminum Conductor, Aluminum Clad Steel Reinforced.
ACSR/TW - ACSR conductor made using Trapezoidal Wire construction.
ACSS - Aluminum Conductor Steel Supported. This is a conductor that is generally used for overhead transmission construction. ACSS is often preferred over ACSR because of its superior sag characteristics.
ACSS/AW - Aluminum Conductor, Aluminum Clad Steel Supported.
ACSS/TW - ACSS conductor made using Trapezoidal Wire construction.
Active Material (Battery) - Material which reacts chemically to produce electrical energy when the cell discharges. The material returns to its original state during the charging process.
Active Power - A term used for power when it is necessary to distinguish among Apparent Power, Complex Power and its components, and Active and Reactive Power.
Adjustment - The operation intended to bring a transducer into a state of performance suitable for its use.
Admittance - The reciprocal of Impedance (1/Z).
ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Sunscriber Line. ADSL uses standard phone lines to provide high speed data communications. ADSL upstream speeds (from the user) normally top out at 128Kbps and downstream (to the user) at no more than 1.5Mbps. A separate phone line is not required for ADSL service.
AEIC - Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. [www.aeic.org]
Aeolian Vibration - A natural forced vibration caused by wind flowing over a conductor. This occurs at alternate wind induced vortices and at wind speeds typically at 8 to 12 MPH. Contact Young & Company for additional information including the formula to calculate Aeolian Vibration.
Aerial Cable - An assembly of insulated conductors installed on a pole or similar overhead structures. It may be self supporting or attached to a messenger cable.
AFCI - Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter
AFD - Adjustable Frequency Drive
AFI - Arc Fault Interrupter
AIC - Arc Interrupting Current
Air Blast Breakers - A variety of high voltage circuit breakers that use a blast of compressed air to blow-out the arc when the contacts open. Normally, such breakers only were built for transmission class circuit breakers.
AIS - Air Insulated Switchgear
Al - The chemical symbol for aluminum.
Alarm - A signal for attracting attention to some abnormal event.
ALJ - Administrative Law Judge
All-or-Nothing Relay - An electrical relay which is intended to be energized by a quantity, whose value is either higher than that at which it picks up or lower than that at which it drops out.
Alley Arm - A side brace for a crossarm that is not loaded (balanced) evenly.
Alley Roadway (Lighting) - Narrow public ways within a block, generally used for vehicular access to the rear of abutting properties.
Alligator - A speciallized tool attached to a hot stick used to tie a wire or cable into an insulator.
Alloy - A metal formed by the combination of two or more metals.
Alternating Current - An electric current that reverses direction at regular intervals, having a magnitude that varies continuously in a sinusoidal manner.
Ambient Temperature - The temperature surrounding an object.
American Wire Gage (AWG) - A standard system used in the United States for designating the size of an electrical conductor based on a geometric progression between two conductor sizes.
AMF (Lighting) - Average Maintained Footcandles
Ampacity - The current in amperes that a conductor can carry continuously under given conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.
Ampere - The unit expressing the rate of flow of an electric current. One ampere is the current produced by a difference in potential of one volt across a resistance of one ohm; An electic current flowing at therate of one coulomb per second.
Ampere-Hour - The use of one Ampere for one hour.
Ampere-hour capacity (storage battery) - The number of ampere-hours that can be delivered under specified conditions of temperature, rate of discharge, and final voltage.
Ampere-hour meter - An electricity meter that measures and registers the integral, with respect to time, of the current of a circuit in which it is connected.
Anchor - A device that supports and holds in place conductors when they are terminated at a pole or structure. The anchor is buried and attached to the pole by way of guy wire to counteract the mechanical forces of these conductors.
Anneal - The process of controlled heating and cooling of a metal. In wire and cable products, copper and aluminum are annealed to increase flexibility while maintaining adequate strength.
Anode - 1) The positive electrode, that emits positive ions and attracts negative ions, within a voltaic cell or other such device. 2) The positive pole of a battery.
ANSI - American National Standards Institute. ANSI is located at 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
Antenna Gain - An antenna's transmission power, provided as a ratio of its output (send) signal strength to its input (recieve) signal strength, normally expressed in dBi. The higher the dBi, the stronger the antenna.
Anti-Pumping Device - A feature incorporated in a Circuit Breaker or re-closing scheme to prevent repeated operation where the closing impulse lasts longer than the sum of the relay and CB operating times.
Apparent Power (volt-amps) - The product of the applied voltage and current in an ac circuit. Apparent power, or volt-amps, is not the true power of the circuit because the power factor is not considered in the calculation.
AR - Automatic Recloser.
Arc - A dischare of electricity through air or a gas.
Arc Flash - An arcing fault is the flow of current through the air between phase conductors or phase and neutral or ground. An arcing fault can release tremendous amounts of concentrated radiant energy at the point of the arcing in a small fraction of a second resulting in extremely high temperatures, a tremendous pressure blast, and shrapnel hurling at high velocity.
Arc Thermal Performance Value - Maximum capability for arc flash protection of a particular garment or fabric measured in calories per square centimeter. Though both garments and fabrics can be used for protection a garment made from more than one layer of arc flash rated fabric will have a calorie per square centimeter rating greater than the sum of the ATPV rating of the original fabrics. The calorie per square centimeter rating of most arc flash protective suits, coveralls, and coats is commonly sewn into the fabric in large letters.
Arcing Time - The time between instant of separation of the CB contacts and the instant of arc excitation.
Armor - An outer metal layer applied to a cable for mechaical protection. Armor is comprised of factory formed wire, designed to be applied to a range of conductor sizes. Preformed Line Products manufacturers Armor.
Armor Rod - An outer metal layer applied to a cable for mechaical protection. Armor Rods are comprised of factory formed wire, designed to be applied to a range of conductor sizes. Preformed Line Products manufacturers Armor Rods.
Arrester - Short for Surge Arrester, a device that limits surge voltage by diverting it.
Askeral - A generic term for a group of synthetic, fire-resistant, chlorinated aromatic hydorcarbons used as electrical insulated fluids.
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM is located at 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103.
ATC - Available Transfer Capacity
ATP - Alternative Transient Program
Automatic line sectionalizer - A self-contained circuit-opening device that automatically opens the main electrical circuit after sensing and responding to a predetermined number of successive main current impulses.
Automatic Recloser - An automatic switch used to open then reclose following an over current event on a distribution voltage (medium voltage) line.
Autotransformer - A transformer in which at least two windings have a common section. They are use to either "buck" or "boost" the incoming line voltage.
Auxiliary Power - The power required for correct operation of an electrical or electronic device, supplied via an external auxiliary power source rather than the line being measured.
Auxiliary Relay - An all-or-nothing relay energized via another relay. An example is a measuring relay, for the purpose of providing higher rated contacts, or introducing a time delay, or providing multiple outputs from a single input.
Average Maintained Footcandles (Lighting) - (ILL x CU x LLF)/(PS x RW)
AWG - American Wire Gauge.
Baker Board - A platform used to work above the ground on a wood pole.
Balanced Load - Refers to an equal loading of the phases in a polyhphase system (current and phase angle).
Balanced polyphase system - A polyphase system in which both the currents and voltages are symmetrical.
Ballast - A device that by means of inductance, capacitance, or resistance, singly or in combination, limits the lamp current of a fluorescent or high intensity discharge lamp. It provides the necessary circuit conditions (voltage, current and wave form) for starting and operating the lamp.
Bandwidth - The data carrying capacity of of a transmission path, measured in bits or bytes per second.
Bank - A group of electrical devices, usually transformers or capacitors, connected in a way to increase capacity.
Basic impulse level (BIL) - A reference impulse (voltage) insulation strength expressed in terms of the peak value of the withstand voltage of a standard impulse voltage wave. It is used to express the ability of electrical equipment such as transformers to withstand certain levels of voltage impulses like lightning strokes.
Basic Insulation Level - A design voltage level for electrical apparatus that refers to a short duration (1.2 x 50 microsecond) crest voltage and is used to measure the ability of an insulation system to withstand high surge voltage.
Battery - A combination of two or more chemical cells connected together electronically to produce electrical energy.
Battery Tray - A contained with a base and walls for holding several cells or batteries.
Bay-O-Net - A fusing device frequently used to protect transformers and downstream devices. A Bay-O-Net fuse fuse may include a Partial Range Current Limiting Fuse in series with n under oil fuse link.
Beacon - In wireless networking, a beacon is a packet sent by a connected device to inform other devices of its presence and readiness.
Beam Spread - With regard to outdoor lightg, the angle between the two directions in a plane in which the intensity is equal to a stated percentage of the maximum beam intensity. The percentage is typically 10% for floodlights and 50% for roadway luminaires.
Belt - Refers to a lineman's climbing belt.
Bias Current - The current used as a bias quantity in a biased relay.
Biased Relay - A relay in which the characteristics are modified by the introduction of some quantity, and which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity.
Bikeway (Lighting) - Any road, street, path or way that is specifically designated as being open to bicycle travel, regardless of whether such facilities are designed for the exclusive use of bicycles.
BIL - 1) See Basic Insulation Level. 2) See Basic Impulse Level.
Blackout - The complete interrupting of load to an electric utility customer or group of customers to reduce overall load on the system.
Blowing - The act of installing fiberoptic cable into a duct using air pressure.
Bluetooth - A wireless computing and telecommunications specification that defines how mobile personal computing devices work with each other and with regular computers and phone systems within a close range.
Bonding - The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path that will ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct any current to be present in a safe manner.
Boomer - A lineman that moves from job to job.
Boost Charge - A charge applied to a battery which is already near a state of full charge, usually of short duration.
Booster Transformer - A current transformer whose primary winding is in series with the catenary and secondary winding in the return conductor of a classically-fed A.C. overhead electrified railway.
Breakdown Voltage - The voltage at which a dielectric material fails.
Breaker - see "Circuit breaker".
Brownout - Refers to a reduction of voltage on the system. This effectively dims the lights. Systems in the eastern parts of the U.S. where networks are integrated use brownouts as a means of conserving energy.
Buck - The act of lowering the voltage.
Bucket - A basket or platform that supports one or more linemen attached to a boom of a truck.
Bucket Truck - An aerial lift truck used to lift men high enough to work on overhead lines.
Building Wire - Conductors and cables used in commercial building construction.
Bulb - The outer enclosure of a light source; usually glass or quartz.
Bulb Envelope Lighting - The outer enclosure of a light source; usually glass or quartz.
Bull Line - Heavy line used to pull wire or cable into a conduit or into an overhead configuration.
Bull Wheel - A reel device used to hold tension during the wire installation process.
Bunched Stranding - A term applied to a number of wires twisted together in one direction in one operation without regard to their geometric arrangement.
Bundle - Multiple cables used to form one phase of an overhead circuit.
BURD - Buried Urban Residential Distibution.
Burden - Load imposed by an electronic or electrical device on the measured input circuit, expressed in volt-amps.
Buried Urban Residential Distibution - Refers to the system of electric utility equipment installed below grade.
Bus - A conductor, which may be a solid bar or pipe, normally made of aluminum or copper, used to connect one or more circuits to a common interface. An example would be the bus used to connect a substation transformer to the outgoing circuits.
Bushing - An insulator having a conductor through it, used to connect equipment to a power source.
Bushing Well - See Universal Bushing Well.
C - Centigrade or Celsius
C-Rate - Battery discharge current in amperes; numerically equal to rated capacity of a cell in ampere-hours.
C2H4 - Ethylene.
C2H6 - Ethane.
Cable - A term generally applied to the larger sizes of bare or weatherproofed (covered) and insulated conductors. It is also applied to describe a number of insulated conductors twisted or grouped together.
Cable Cleaner - A chemical compound used to clean dirt, residual insulation & semi con and other foreign material from an insulated cable during the termination process.
Cable Pulling Lubricant - A chemical compound used to reduce pulling tension by lubricating a cable when pulled into a duct or conduit.
Cable Sheath - The outermost covering of a cable providing overall protection
Cable Tray - A rigid structural system used to support cables and raceways. Types of cable trays include ladder, ventilated trough, ventilated channel, and solid bottom
CAIDI - A distribution circuit reliability average interruption duration index. It represents the average time required to restore service to the average customer per sustained interruptions.
CAIFI - The customer average interruption frequency index. It is designed to show trends in customers interrupted and helps to show the number of customers affected out of the whole customer base.
Cal-ISO - See California Independent System Operator.
Calibration - Adjustment of a device so the output is within a specified range for particular values of the input.
Calorie - A calorie is the energy required to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius at one atmosphere. The onset of second-degree burns may occur at 1.2 calories per centimeter squared per second. One calorie per centimeter squared per second per second can be equal to holding your finger over the tip of the flame of a cigarette lighter for one second.
Can - Slang for an overhead transformer.
Candela (cd) - The standard unit for luminous intensity. One candela is equal to one lumen per steradian.
Candlepower - Luminous intensity expressed in candelas.
Candlepower Distribution Curve - A curve, generally polar, representing the variation of luminous intensity of a lamp or luminaire in a plane through the light center.
Capacitance - 1) The ratio of an impressed charge on a conductor to the corresponding change in potential. 2)The ratio of the charge on either conductor of a capacitor to the potential difference between the conductors. 3) The property of being able to collect a charge of electricity.
Capacitor - An electrical device having Capacitance.
Capacitor bank - An assembly of capacitors and all necessary accessories, such as switching equipment, protective equipment, controls, etc., required for a complete operating installation.
Capacitor Voltage Transformer - A voltage transformer that uses capacitors to obtain a voltage divider effect. It is utilized at EHV voltages instead of an electromagnetic VT for cost and size purposes.
Capacity (Battery) - The quantity of electricity delivered by a battery under specific conditions, usually expressed in ampere-hours.
Cat 5 Cable - See "Category 5 Cable"
Category 5 Cable - Also known as "Cat 5", this cable is used for fast ethernet and telephone communications. The cable is constructed of 4 twisted pair of copper wire.
Cathode - 1) The negative electrode, that emits electrons or gives off negative ions and toward which positive ions move or collect in a voltaic cell or other such device. 2) The negative pole of a battery.
CB - Circuit Breaker
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access. CMDA is a technique used mainly with personal communications devices such as mobile phones that digitizes the conversation and tags it with a special frequency code. The data is then scattered across the frequency band. The receiving device is instructed to decipher only the data corresponding to a particular code to reconstruct the signal.
Cell (Battery) - An electrochemical device composed of positive and negative plates, separator, and electrolyte which is capable of storing electrical energy.
Cell Voltage (Battery) - See "Nominal Voltage (Battery)".
Cell-Reversal (Battery) - Reversing of polarity within a cell od a multi-cell battery due to over discharge.
CH2H2 - Acetylene
CH4 - Methane.
Characteristic Angle - The angle between the vectors representing two of the energizing quantities applied to a relay used for the declaration of the performance.
Characteristic Curve - A plot or curve displaying the operating values of the characteristic quantities corresponding to various values or combinations of the energizing quantities.
Characteristic Impedance Ratio (C.I.R.) - The maximum value of the system impedance ratio for which the relay performance remains within the prescribed limits of accuracy.
Charge (Battery) - The conversion of electrcal energy from an external source, into chemical energy within a cell or battery.
Charge Rate (Battery) - The rate at which current is applied to a secondary cell or battery to restore its capacity.
Charge-Retention (Battery) - The tendency of a charges cell or battery to resist self-discharge.
Check Proctection System - An auxiliary protection system intended to prevent tripping due to inadvertent operation of the main protection system.
Chlorinated Polyethylene - Chlorinated Polyethylene. CPE, a thermoplastic compound, is used to jacket certain types of power cable.
Choker - A Sling.
Circuit - A conductive path over which an electric charge may flow.
Circuit Breaker - A device that can be used to manually open or close a circuit, and to automatically open a circuit at a predetermined level of overcurrent without damage to itself.
Circuit Insulation Voltage - The highest circuit voltage to earth on which a circuit of a transducer may be used and which determines its voltage test.
Circuit Switchers - Circuit-Switchers are multipurpose switching and protection devices. Often used for switching and protection of transformers, single and back-to-back shunt capacitor banks, reactors, lines, and cables. They can close, carry, and interrupt fault currents as well as load currents
Circuit Voltage - The greatest root-mean-square (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit.
Circular-Mil (cmil) - The area of a circle with a diameter of one mil (1/1000 inch), used to describe the cross-sectional area of a conductor. One cmil equals approximately 0.0000008 square inches.
Class Index - A number which designates an accuracy class.
Clearing Time - The total time needed for a protective device such as a fuse or circuit breaker to clear a fault.
CLF - Refer to "Current Limiting Fuse".
Client - As part of a computer network, where a server is employed, this is the customer or non-server side. When you log onto a server, from another computer, the word "Client" refers to you, your computer or your software.
Climbers - Hooks for climbing poles that are attached to a lineman's boots.
Closing Impulse Time - The time during which a closing impulse is given to the circuit breaker.
Closing Time - Referring to a circuit breaker it is the necessary time for it to close, beginning with the time of energizing of the closing circuit until contact is made in the CB.
CO - Carbon Monoxide.